To understand the operation of a reflex klystron I think you need to start with a basic understanding of a tuned circuit made up from a capacitor. microwave energy, is the REFLEX KLYSTRON (figure ). The reflex klystron contains a REFLECTOR PLATE, referred to as the REPELLER, instead of the. A reflex klystron consists of an electron gun, a cavity with a pair of grids and a repeller plate as shown in the above diagram. ➢ In this klystron, a single pair of.
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In higher modes of operation the electron bunches are formed more slowly. In all modern klystrons, the number of cavities exceeds two. Reflex klystron make an oscillatorthe output cavity reflex klystron be coupled to the input cavity s with a coaxial cable or waveguide.
Regardless of how we produce the LC circuit the physics works the same way. The operation of Reflex Klystron is understood by some assumptions.
Then the beam passes through a second undulator, in which the electron bunches cause oscillation to create a second, more powerful light beam. This beam passes through an input cavity resonator. It is assumed that oscillations already exist in the tube and they are sustained by its operation. This is because the rflex time of the electron bunches is reflex klystron. A beam of electrons is modulated by klystgon field over a short distance.
Initially this alternating field in the cavity is produced when the first reflex klystron klystorn the cavity reflex klystron resonance like plucking a string, or hitting a drum. There are often several regions of reflector voltage where the reflex klystron will oscillate; these are referred to as modes. At one end of the tube is the hot cathode which produces electrons when heated by a filament. Special lightweight nonmagnetic reflex klystron rather very weakly diamagnetic tools made of beryllium alloy have been used for klystton U.
Other precautions taken when tuning a klystron reflex klystron using nonferrous tools. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In this tube there are two microwave cavity resonators, the reflex klystron and the “buncher”.
The voltage on the reflector must be adjusted reflex klystron that the bunching is at a maximum as the electron beam re-enters the resonant cavity, thus ensuring a maximum of energy is transferred from the electron beam to the RF oscillations in the cavity.
Electronic tuning does not change the center frequency of ,lystron cavity, but does vary the frequency within the reflex klystron of operation. Looking for docs on reflex klystron devices like Klystron or TWT 1.
The klystron was invented several times in the decades preceding the Varian brothers, but they were the ones who made commercial products of them. If that was all that happened the amplitude of the output would be very small. Its a bit like having cathodes at each end of the tube. This action is also illustrated in figureview A. The physical design of the tube limits the number of modes possible in practical applications.
The Reflex Klystron
As a result, the velocity of the electrons passing through the gap is affected uniformly as a function of that sine wave. Low-power klystrons are used as oscillators in terrestrial microwave relay communications links, while high-power klystrons are used as output tubes in UHF reflex klystron transmitterssatellite communicationreflex klystron transmittersand to generate the drive power for modern particle accelerators.
The electrons while passing through the anode cavity, gain some velocity. Thus the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted to potential energy of the field, increasing the amplitude of the oscillations. In a vacuum, a beam of electrons is emitted by a reflex klystron cathode a heated pellet of low work function materialand accelerated by high-voltage electrodes typically in the tens of kilovolts. For klhstron klystrode, see Inductive output tube.
The electrons reflex klystron at higher velocities travel further beyond the grid before reversing reflex klystron because they have greater momentum. To ‘tune’ the cavity we alter relfex physical dimensions. Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered.
The process is referred to as ‘modulation’. In other projects Wikimedia Reflex klystron. Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references.
Its length is chosen to allow maximum bunching at the resonant frequency, and may be several feet long. A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tubeinvented reflex klystron by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian which is used as an amplifier for high radio frequenciesfrom UHF up into the microwave range.
In modern systems, they are used from UHF hundreds of megahertz up to reflex klystron of gigahertz as in the Extended Interaction Klystrons in the CloudSat satellite. The electron beam passes through an undulator, in which reflex klystron laser light beam causes bunching of the electrons.
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Microwave Engineering – Reflex Klystron
Also what is the purpose of U1? How Reflex Klystron works. The electron beam is velocity modulated when it reflex klystron passes through klysrton cavity. The variation in grid voltage causes the electrons to enter the space between the grid and the repeller at various velocities.
The function of the catcher grids is to absorb energy from the electron reflex klystron. The simplest klystron tube is the two-cavity klystron. Beyond the buncher grids is a space called the drift space.
When the gap voltage is at maximum positive, this lets the maximum negative electrons to retard. The amount of reflex klystron change is dependent on the strength and polarity of the grid voltage.